INDIVIDUAL FINCH FORECASTS
Forecasts apply mainly to Ontario and adjacent provinces and states. Three irruptive non-finch passerines whose movements are linked to
finches are also discussed. There will be local exceptions to individual forecasts. You can follow the movements of winter finches this fall and winter on eBird.
Pine Grosbeaks should make a small flight into central Ontario because mountain-ash berry crops are low in northeastern Ontario. However, mountain-ash
crops are excellent in north-central Quebec and in northwestern Ontario with excellent crops extending west across the boreal forest to Alaska so grosbeaks
there may not move far from these areas. At feeders they prefer sunflower seeds, and also watch for them feeding on European mountain-ash berries and
Last winter many Purple Finches stayed in the boreal forest because of bumper seed crops there. This fall most Purple Finches should migrate south of
Ontario because many coniferous and deciduous tree seed crops are much lower in central and northeastern Ontario. When Purple Finches leave Ontario in
October and November, they return in mid-April to mid-May to breed. At feeders Purples prefer sunflower seeds. Old-timers remember when Purple Finches
were much commoner than they are today. The principal cause of the decline may be the absence of large outbreaks of spruce budworm.
Red Crossbills will be scattered in the Northeast this winter because cone crops are generally poor. Expect some in Ontario where red and/or white pines
have locally good cone crops. A few Red Crossbills were reported this past summer north of Lake Huron. Red Crossbills comprise at least 10 "call types" in
North America. However, the types are usually impossible to identify without recordings of their flight calls. Matt Young (may6 at cornell.edu) at The Cornell
Lab of Ornithology will identify types if you send him your recordings and this will help with his ongoing research. Matt reports that Type 10s have been
moving around the Great Lakes and Northeast for a few months and Pascal Cote of the Tadoussac Bird Observatory in Quebec reports a small movement of Type 3s.
This crossbill will be mostly absent this winter from central Ontario such as in Algonquin Park because spruce and hemlock cone crops are very poor there.
White-winged Crossbills move east and west like a pendulum across North America searching for bumper cone crops. In the Northeast they should winter in numbers
around James Bay and east across north/central Quebec into the Gaspe Peninsula where spruce crops are heavy. Pascal Cote reports that White-winged Crossbills are
currently abundant in boreal areas of Quebec such as Charlevoix and Chibougamau. They are unlikely to irrupt south in numbers because the excellent spruce cone
crops in Quebec, northwestern Canada and Alaska should keep this crossbill within the boreal forest.
Expect a moderate to good flight south this fall and winter because birch seed crops are variably poor to average in the boreal forest. At bird feeders redpolls
prefer nyger seeds in silo feeders. Watch for "Greater" Common Redpolls (subspecies rostrata) from Baffin Island and Greenland in flocks of "Southern" Common Redpolls
(nominate subspecies flammea). Greaters are larger, browner, longer tailed, and bigger billed in direct comparison with "Southerns". For photos of "Greater"
Common Redpolls see links #5 and 6 below. below. Watch for redpolls in weedy fields.
Watch for Hoaries this winter mixed in with flocks of Common Redpolls. The "Southern" Hoary Redpoll (nominate subspecies exilipes) which breeds south to northern
Ontario is the usual subspecies encountered. It is rare but regular in redpoll flocks. "Hornemann's" Hoary Redpoll (subspecies hornemanni) was once considered a great
rarity south of the tundra, but it has been documented with photos in recent years with four records accepted to date by the Ontario Bird Records Committee. For photos
of Hornemann's see link #6 below.
Siskins were observed in numbers this summer around southern James Bay and in southern Yukon. They will move east and west this fall searching for areas with excellent
spruce cone crops. Siskins should winter in Alaska and north-central Quebec where spruce crops are excellent. However, those that fail to find adequate cone crops will
probably wander south where they will frequent bird feeders with nyger seeds in silo feeders. Siskins are often detected by their wheezy clee-ip call, which is the best way to identify them in flight.
Very small numbers of Evening Grosbeaks should move south this winter into southern Ontario and the Northeast because tree seed crops are generally poor farther north.
This past summer, Tyler Hoar reports the lowest number of Evening Grosbeaks that he has seen around Lake Superior and in Quebec's Laurentians in four years. Breeding populations
are now much reduced from the population peak during the 1940s to 1980s linked to large outbreaks of spruce budworm. The feeders at the Visitor Centre in Algonquin Park should
have some grosbeaks this winter. At feeders Evening Grosbeaks prefer black oil sunflower seeds.
Three Irruptive Passerines
Movements of these species are often linked to the boreal finches.
Expect a good to heavy flight (many more than last year) moving westward along the north shorelines of Lakes Ontario and Erie because the acorn, beechnut, hazelnut
and soft mast crops averaged low in northeastern, central and eastern Ontario. However, acorn crops were much higher in the Carolinian Zone south of Toronto. Expect
fewer Blue Jays at feeders in Ontario this winter because many jays will migrate out of the province this fall.
This nuthatch is a conifer seed specialist when it winters in the boreal forest. Cone crop failures cause irruptions. It began wandering southward in mid-summer
indicating that boreal finches would also move this fall and winter. Many but not all Red-breasted Nuthatches should move south this fall because white spruce cone
crops are generally low to average (some bumper crops) across much of the boreal forest. At bird feeders Red-breasted Nuthatches prefer black oil sunflower seeds,
chopped peanuts and suet.
Most Bohemians should stay in the north this winter because the mountain-ash berry crop is generally very good to excellent across most of the boreal forest except in
northeastern Ontario. When Bohemians move south they are attracted to berries on European Mountain-ash, small ornamental crabapples and buckthorn berries. With the recent
breeding range expansion east across northern Quebec and the annual abundance of buckthorn berries in settled areas, Bohemians now occur every winter in varying numbers in
southern Ontario, southern Quebec and New York State.
Where To See Finches
Algonquin Park is an exciting winter experience about 3.5 hour drive north of Toronto. Cone crops are poor in the park this year so finch numbers will be very low.
However, feeders at the Visitor Centre (km 43) should attract Common Redpolls (watch for Hoaries), Evening and Pine Grosbeaks. The Visitor Centre and restaurant are open
weekends in winter. On weekdays arrangements can be made to view feeders by calling 613-637-2828. The bookstore has one of the best selections of natural history books
anywhere. Be sure to get the Birds of Algonquin Park (2012) by retired park naturalist Ron Tozer. It is one of the finest regional bird books ever published. The nearby
Spruce Bog Trail at km 42.5 and Opeongo Road at km 44.5 are the best spots for finches and other species such as Gray Jay, Boreal Chickadee, Spruce Grouse and Black-backed Woodpecker.
Winter Finch Basics
#1. A primer about finch facts, seed crops and irruptions, plus a very informative chart of finch species and numbers on all 40 Algonquin Park Christmas Bird
Counts Click here.
#2. Winter Finch Forecast 2013-2014 Click here.
#3. Winter Finch Forecast 2012-2013 Click here.
#4. Previous Winter Finch forecasts Click here.
#5. “Greater” Common Redpolls – Reference Photos Click here.
#6. Redpoll Photo Essay - Greater and Hornemann's Redpolls Click here
I thank staff of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, and the many birders whose tree seed reports allow me to make annual forecasts: Christian Artuso (Manitoba),
Dennis Barry (Durham Region, Haliburton, Sudbury), Angus Baptiste (Grand Lac Victoria, Quebec), Eleanor Beagan (Prince Edward Island), Peter Burke (north of Lake Huron),
Mike Burrell (eBird Canada), Joan Collins (Adirondacks, New York), Pascal Cote (Tadoussac Bird Observatory, Quebec), Bruce Di Labio (Eastern Ontario and Churchill, Manitoba),
Charity Dobbs (Ontario Tree Seed Plant), Carolle Eady (Dryden, Ontario), Cameron Eckert (Southern Yukon), Walter Fisher (Rosetta McClain Gardens Raptor Watch, Toronto),
Marcel Gahbauer (Southern Quebec, Gaspe, New Brunswick, Alberta), Michel Gosselin (Canadian Museum of Nature), David Govatski (New Hampshire and Alaska), Leo Heyens (Kenora, Ontario),
Tyler Hoar (Lake Superior and Quebec's Southern Laurentians), Peter Hynard (Minden, Ontario), Kris Ito (French River, Ontario), Jean Iron (James Bay and Northeastern Ontario),
Bruce Mactavish (Island of Newfoundland), Scott McPherson (Nipissing, Ontario), Brian Naylor (North Bay, Ontario), Justin Peter (Algonquin Park, Ontario, and Gatineau Park, Quebec),
Fred Pinto (North Bay, Ontario), Harvey and Brenda Schmidt (Creighton, Saskatchewan), Don Sutherland (Southern James Bay), Ron Tozer (Algonquin Park), Declan Troy (Alaska),
Mike Turner (Haliburton Highlands, Ontario), Richard Welsman (Rosetta McClain Gardens, Toronto). I particularly thank Matt Young of The Cornell Lab of Ornithology for information
about seed crops in New York State and Pennsylvania, and for his advice on the types of Red Crossbills. Jean Iron made helpful comments, proofed this forecast and hosts it on her website.
Photo: Daniel Cadieux
2 Males, 2 Females
Photo: Karl and Marienna Egressy
Photo: Mark Peck
Photo: Sam Barone
Photo: W. Hum
Photo: John Millman
Photo: Sam Barone
Photo: Saul Bocian
Photo: Saul Bocian